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Podcast # 419: Etripamil

Author: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls:   Etripamil is an intranasal calcium channel blocker in development for use in SVT A recent study showed that etripamil has an SVT...

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Podcast # 418: Vertebral Artery Dissection

Author: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) contributes to just 2% of strokes overall but ~25% of strokes for patients < 30 VAD is associated with...

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Podcast # 417: Water Balance

Author: Katie Sprinkle, MD Educational Pearls: Hyponatremia results when patients over hydrate and dilute their sodium with too much free water Symptoms of hyponatremia can mimic symptoms of dehydration...

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Podcast # 416: Wide Complex Tachycardia

Author: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Defined as QRS over 120 ms and rate over 120 Two major rhythms = Vetricular tachycardia (VT) or SVT with aberrancy Safest approach...

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Podcast # 415: Myofascial Pain Syndrome & Fibromyalgia

Author: Ryan Circh, MD Educational Pearls: Myofascial pain syndrome (MFPS) is typically unilateral with discrete points of palpable pain Often secondary to repeated use and poor posture. MFPS typically...

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Podcast # 414: Acute Limb Ischemia

Author: Dylan Luyten, MD Educational Pearls:   Symptoms of acute limb ischemia are the 5 P’s: Pulselessness, pain, pallor, paresthesias, and poikilothermia Sudden onset of non-traumatic extremity pain should...

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Podcast # 413: Fascia Iliaca Block

Author: Katie Sprinkle, MD Educational Pearls:   The fascia iliaca block is useful for hip and proximal femur fractures. Typically involves injecting 40-60 mL of diluted bupivacaine (0.25%) under...

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Podcast #412: tPa Mission Creep

Author: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Patients with “minor” strokes with NIHSS 0 to 5  can still end up having poor long-term outcomes Recent study compared use of alteplase...

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Podcast #411: Mass Casualty Incident

Author: Dylan Luyten, MD Educational Pearls:   Early recognition that the current situation is a mass casualty incident (MCI) is essential with establishing a sole provider/nurse to oversee Team...

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Podcast #410: FAMbulance

Author: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Retrospective study looking at type of transportation and mortality outcomes for patients with penetrating trauma Mortality was 2.2 % for those brought in...

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Podcast #409:  Acute CHF Second Liners

Author: Nick Hatch, MD Educational Pearls:   Quick review on typical treatments for acute CHF: Nitrates are a mainstay to reduce preload Furosemide has fallen out of favor in...

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Podcast #408: Go the hell to sleep

Author: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Recent study showed efficacy 5mg IM midazolam > 10mg IM olanzapine > 10mg IM haloperidol for quickly sedating an agitated patient If you...

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Podcast #407:  Choose your own blister adventure

Author: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls:   Three options for a blister in partial thickness burns:  do nothing, unroof it, or poke a hole in it Recent study suggest...

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Podcast #406: PO vs. IV Tylenol

Author: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls:   Intravenous Tylenol currently is many times more expensive than oral Single ED study comparing the two has methodology flaws and there is...

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Podcast #405: Infant Walkers

Author: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls:   Recent study has revealed that infant walkers are more harmful than helpful Infant walkers can also delay motor function The American Academy...

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Podcast #404: Electric Scooter Injuries

Author: Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls:   Recent news articles are showing an increase in injuries related to riding electric scooters Year-to-year, scooter injuries have increased as high as...

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Podcast #403: Meniscus Lock

Author: Mark Hinton, MD Educational Pearls:   Meniscus lock can occur with a tear leading to inability to extend the knee Treatment can include an intra-articular joint block followed...

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Podcast #402: Rapid sequence intubation medications

Educational Pearls: RSI includes induction agent (sedative) and a paralytic Succinylcholine is a depolarizing paralytic of rapid onset and short duration with contraindications in hyperkalemic states and muscular dystrophy...

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Podcast #401: Foreign Body Aspiration

Author: Gretchen Hinson, MD Educational Pearls: Diagnosis can be difficult and often delayed Asymmetric breath sounds, choking, stridor may be present, but children also present asymptomatically Peak incidence around...

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Podcast #400: ECMO

Author: Dylan Luyten, MD Educational Pearls:   Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is similar to bypass ECMO is being utilized routinely at some centers and even prehospital in cardiac arrest...

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Podcast #399: Hunting for pancreatitis

Author: Michael Hunt, MD Educational Pearls: Alcohol and gallstones are most common causes of pancreatitis Diagnosis is not simply based on lipase alone – must have at least two...

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Podcast #398: Who is gonna fail your antibiotic plan?

Author: Erik Verzemnieks, MD Educational Pearls: Recent study provides at least some evidence to help predict antibiotic failure for cellulitis, which is not necessarily straight forward Intuitive risk factors...

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Podcast #397: Pharyngeal Trauma

Author: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Injuries from penetrating pharyngeal trauma  are often subtle on examination in children Potentially serious complications including carotid artery injury, mediastinitis from spreading infection,...

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Podcast #396: Oncologic Emergencies

Author: Rachel Brady, MD Educational Pearls: Hypercalcemia of malignancy: Hypercalcemia of malignancy can present with lethargy, muscle weakness, hyperreflexia, altered mental status, cardiac dysrhythmias, and even cardiac arrest. Treatment...

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Podcast #395: Aspirin for everyone!

Author: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: In patients without indications for aspirin, three recent studies looked at prevention of several end points in the elderly These showed no benefit...

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Podcast #394: Myths of Medication Assisted Treatment

Author: Katie Sprinkle, MD Educational Pearls: Medication Assisted Treatment (MAT) is the treatment of addiction with medications, commonly used for opioid use disorders A long held belief is MAT...

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Podcast #393: Neonatal Vomiting

Author: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Important historical information to elicit is the birth history, feeding habits, stooling habits, associated symptoms, presence of bile, and presence of trauma. Volvulus...

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Podcast # 392: Maggot Therapy

Author: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Interest started as it was noticed soldiers who had wounds infected with maggots had better outcomes than those without maggots Studies have shown...

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Podcast # 391: Necrotizing Fasciitis

Author: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Necrotizing fasciitis is an infection of the deep soft tissues with destruction of the muscle fascia and overlying fat Think of it if...

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Podcast # 390: Haloperidol for Pain

Author: Gretchen Hinson, MD Educational Pearls: Reasonable approach of haloperidol 10 mg IM (or 5 mg IV) for pain relief in opioid-dependent patients; can repeat once. Chronic opioid use...

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Podcast #389: BRUE

Author:  Sarah Normandin, MD. Educational Pearls: BRUE (Brief Resolved Unexplained Event) replaces what was previously called ALTE. BRUE describes an event in a child less than one year of...

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Podcast #388: Antibiotics for Appendicitis

Author:  Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: 5-year follow up study on antibiotic treatment for uncomplicated appendicitis showed 39.1% recurrence rate requiring appendectomy by 5 years Nearly 60% chance then...

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Podcast #386: Respecting Transgender Patients

Author:  Kasey Champion, MD Educational Pearls: Transgender populations are frequent victims of discrimination in healthcare. Ask transgender patients what their preferred pronoun is. It is sometimes important to ask...

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Podcast #385: Probiotics

Author:  John Winkler, MD Educational Pearls: Probiotics are bacteria that are ingested to promote gut health but recent research casts doubt on their effectiveness. Recent study suggests that most...

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Podcast #384: Don’t stab a PTA?

Author:  Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Recent study suggests we may not need to drain uncomplicated peritonsillar abscesses. Patients who received medical therapy alone had no difference in complications...

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Podcast #383: Prehospital Tubes

Author:  Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls: Two high-quality randomized control trials published in 2018 demonstrated no difference in mortality or neurologic outcomes when using a supraglottic airway compared to...

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Podcast #382: Shoulder Separations

Author:  Ryan Circh, MD Educational Pearls: A “shoulder separation” is when the clavicle separates from the scapula – also referred to as an acromio-clavicular (AC) separation Diagnosis is clinical:...

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Podcast #381: MRI… Burns?

Author:  Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls: MRI machines can generate enough heat from the radiofrequency to cause thermal burns Patients with EKG stickers, medication patches, clothing impregnated with metallic...

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Podcast #380: Oxygen for the kill

Author:  Ryan Circh, MD Educational Pearls:   Review of 25 randomized control trials encompassing 16,037 acutely ill hospitalized patients Patients given oxygen with saturations > 94% on room air...

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Podcast #379: Patient Perspectives of the Flu

Author:  Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls: Patients may have certain fears or expectations about the flu based on hearsay and other less reliable sources Taking extra time explaining the...

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Podcast #378: Is That a Brown Recluse Spider Bite?

Author:  Michael Hunt, MD Educational Pearls: Use the mnemonic NOT RECLUSE to rule out a brown recluse spider bite: Numerous bites (recluse spiders will bite once) Occurence (recluse bites...

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Podcast #377: Endocarditis

Author:  Nick Tsipis, MD Educational Pearls: Persistent fever or positive blood cultures should raise suspicion for endocarditis Patients with recent dental procedures, recent cardiac surgeries are at risk, or...

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Podcast #376: Alcohol Intoxication

Educational Pearls: Blood concentrations over 0.4 mg/dL  is associated with respiratory depression and possible death in alcohol naive patients Alcohol overdose accounts to 2,200 deaths per year Don’t forget...

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Podcast #375: Retrograde Urethrogram

Author:  Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Blood at urethral meatus in trauma can be a sign of bladder/urethral injury Blind placement of a Foley catheter can make an undiagnosed...

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Podcast #374: Iliac Artery Endofibrosis

Author:  Sue Chilton, MD Educational Pearls: An unusual cause of leg pain that can mimic sciatica/claudication Predominantly occurring in high endurance athletes, particularly cyclists and runners More common in...

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Podcast # 373: Legionnaires Disease

Author:  Gretchen Hinson, MD Educational Pearls: Legionnaires disease refers to a severe pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophilia and occurs typically at the extremes of age Associated gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea/vomiting/diarrhea)...

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Podcast # 372: The Latest on Epinephrine in Cardiac Arrest

Author:  Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: 8014 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest randomized to epinephrine vs placebo 30-day survival was not dramatically better between groups (3.2%in the epinephrine group...

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Podcast # 371: EKG changes of Hyperkalemia

Author:  Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: EKG changes do not necessarily correlate to degree of hyperkalemia Traditional progression through peaked T-waves, flattened p-waves, QRS widening, and then sine-waves before...

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Podcast # 370:  Rapid Fire Neonatal Resuscitation

Author:  Erik Verzemnieks, MD Educational Pearls: In the panic of a precipitous ED delivery, remember: Warm. Dry. Stim.  It will solve most of your problems in most scenarios Start...

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Podcast # 369: Five powerful toxins – the definitive list?

Author: Michael Hunt, MD Educational Pearls: Here is a list of some very toxic natural substances: #5: Tetrodotoxin: Found in pufferfish and other aquatic species #4: Ricin: made from...

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Podcast # 368: Prehospital Plasma

Author: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Non-blinded randomized study assessing 30-day mortality benefit from plasma-first resuscitation in patients at risk hemorrhagic shock Study involved aeromedical transport of trauma patients...

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Podcast # 367: Digital Necrosis after Epi Drip

Author: Jared Scott, MD. Educational Pearls: Make sure to monitor for limb ischemia in all patients on vasopressors Good reminder that vasopressors are not risk free – use them...

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Podcast # 366: Ehlers Danlos

Podcast # 366: Ehlers Danlos Author: Gretchen Hinson, MD. Educational Pearls: Heritable mutation in collagen synthesis and expression commonly resulting in joint hyperextension and skin elasticity. Vascular type can...

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Podcast # 365: Renal Trigger Point Injections

Author: Erik Verzemnieks, MD Educational Pearls: Single study in Japan demonstrated possible effectiveness of renal colic trigger point Patients had injection at the area of maximal tenderness on palpation...

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Podcast # 364: Other causes of ST elevation

Author: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Pericarditis, LBBB, LVH and left ventricular aneurysms can all present with ST elevation. Ventricular aneurysm will present days after a cardiac event with...

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Podcast # 363: Ketamine for Alcohol Withdrawal

Educational Pearls: Recent study has shown adjunctive ketamine can be useful in setting of alcohol withdrawal. Ketamine was associated with a decrease in the amount of benzodiazepines needed, likelihood...

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Podcast # 362: Giant Hogweed

Author: John Winkler, MD Educational Pearls: Tall flowering plant with phototoxic sap Direct skin contact with the sap can cause the skin to become photosensitive Severe blisters and even...

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Podcast # 361: Vertiginous Dizziness

Author: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Important to find out if patients mean dysequilibrium, lightheadedness, or vertigo when patients say they are “dizzy.” Differentiate central vs. peripheral vertigo Central...

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Podcast # 360: Epidural Abscess Screening

Author: Dylan Luyten, MD. Educational Pearls: Dangerous causes of back pain: AAA, cauda equina syndrome, epidural abscess. Young person with back pain needs to be evaluated for injection drug...

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Podcast # 359: Normal EKG

Author: Sam Killian, MD. Educational Pearls: Computer interpretation has a very good negative predictive value of a normal EKG (99%). Of 222 interpreted as “normal,” 13 were deemed to...

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Podcast # 358: Affordable ear drop alternatives

Educational Pearls: Otic (ear) specific antibiotic drops can be expensive Opthalmic (eye) versions are basically identical and can be used as an affordable substitute as many are on the...

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Podcast #357: Local Anesthetic Toxicity

Author: Michael Hunt, MD Educational Pearls: Toxicity happens from local anesthetics being given too fast, too much, or in the unintended spot Systemic toxicity manifests first with neurologic symptoms...

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Podcast # 356: Babies can’t be born addicted

Author: Don Stader, MD. Educational Pearls: A baby can be born dependent on opioids but not addicted to them. Opioid addiction (Opioid Use Disorder) is a disease of mature...

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Podcast #355: Syphilis

Author: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Re-emerging STI. Progresses through distinct phases if untreated: Primary syphilis: frequently overlooked because initial chancre is painless. Secondary syphilis: viral syndrome, rash on...

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Podcast # 354: Hematometra

Author: Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls: Hematometra: uterus filled with blood due to obstruction of outflow tract. Most commonly a result congenital abnormalities (imperforate hymen, transverse vaginal septum, etc.)...

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Podcast # 353: Xofluza

Author: Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls: Japan recently approved baloxavir marboxil (Xofluza), which may potentially “kill” Flu A/B within 24 hours Recent RCT trial showed superiority over oseltamavir (Tamiflu)...

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Podcast #352: TXA for Epistaxis

Podcast #352: TXA for Epistaxis Author:  Chris Holmes, M.D. Educational Pearls: TXA: tranexamic acid; used in control of bleeding in major trauma, postpartum hemorrhage, etc. In study of 216...

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Podcast #351: Indications for AICD

Author:  Pete Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: AICD: Automated Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator. Can be placed for secondary prevention of cardiac arrest (i.e. history of cardiac arrest not from reversible cause). Also...

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Podcast # 350: Pressors and Ischemia

Author: Nick Hatch, MD. Educational Pearls: A common concern using vasopressors is the risk of digital and mesenteric ischemia. The absolute risk of digital ischemia and/or mesenteric ischemia is...

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Podcast # 349: Fat Emboli

Author: Sue Chilton, MD Educational Pearls: Triad of fat emboli syndrome is a petechial rash, AMS, and respiratory distress. Petechiae usually start in the axilla. 90% of patients with...

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Podcast # 348: Steakhouse Syndrome

Author: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Steakhouse syndrome is an impacted esophageal food bolus. Occurs because they have an esophageal stricture (schatzki ring, scarring, esophagitis). Classic treatments have consisted...

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Podcast # 347: Fasting and Procedural Sedation

  Author: Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls: Recent study examining fasting and adverse events during procedural sedation found no association between fasting duration and any type of adverse event....

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Podcast # 346: Pediatric DKA

Author: Chris Holmes, MD Educational Pearls: There is a risk of cerebral edema in pediatrics with DKA if over resuscitated. Recent study comparing normal saline vs. ½ normal saline...

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Podcast # 345: Epidural Abscess

Author: Sue Chilton, MD Educational Pearls: IV drug use and spinal procedures are major risk factors. Classic triad of back pain, focal neurological deficit and fever. However, presence of...

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Podcast # 344: Foley troubleshooting

Author: Aaron Lessen, MD. Educational Pearls: When foley is stuck, balloon may not have deflated. Make sure balloon is not in the urethra, which can block drainage. Cut off...

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Podcast # 343: Snake Bites

Educational Pearls: Snake bites commonly occur between April and October. Rattlesnake bites are the most common. Venom contains proteins/enzymes that cause local inflammation, coagulopathy, and systemic effects (hypotension, angioedema,...

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Podcast # 342: Scombroid

Author: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Scombroid is a type of food poisoning associated with dark fish (i.e. tuna, salmon, mackerel) that mimics anaphylaxis. Occurs through conversion of histidine...

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Podcast # 341: Tenecteplase vs. Alteplase

Author: Rachel Beham, PharmD Educational Pearls: Tenecteplase is more specific for fibrin and has a longer half-life than alteplase. In setting of ischemic stroke, tenecteplase before thrombectomy was associated...

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Podcast # 340: Drowning

Author: Chris Holmes, MD Educational Pearls: Epidemiology: 80% male, ages 1-4 at greatest risk, African-American > Caucasian. Freshwater and ocean water may have more bacteria than pool water. Salt...

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Podcast # 339: Ectopic Pregnancy Risk Factors

Author: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Data is mixed, but some studies show 1-2% of pregnancies are ectopic. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancies include: pelvic inflammatory disease, prior ectopic...

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Podcast # 338: Mononucleosis Predictors

Author: Chris Holmes, MD Educational Pearls: Symptoms commonly seen with mononucleosis are palatal petechiae, posterior cervical lymphadenopathy, inguinal/axillary lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and/or atypical lymphocytes > 10% on CBC. Among these,...

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Podcast # 337: Airway Burn Inhalation

Author: John Winkler, MD Educational Pearls: Singed nasal hairs, soot around mouth, hoarse voice, drooling, and burns to head/face are signs suggestive of inhalation injury. Early intubation is critical...

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Podcast # 336: Hypokalemia

Author: Dylan Luyten, MD Educational Pearls: Most important questions to answer with low potassium are 1. What are their symptoms? 2. Can they take potassium by mouth? Oral repletion...

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Podcast # 335: Blunt Head Trauma

Author: Peter Bakes, M.D. Educational Pearls: Epidural hematomas have a characteristic convex appearance on CT while a subdural hematoma will have a concave appearance. Indications for operative intervention for...

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Podcast #334: Resuscitative Thoracotomy

Author: Dylan Luyten, MD Educational Pearls: Resuscitative thoracotomies are most commonly used for treatment of cardiac tamponade and to selectively perfuse the brain and heart in setting of hemorrhage...

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Podcast #333: TBI Prognosticators

Author: Michael Hunt, MD Educational Pearls: Studies have shown that patients with decreasing GCS scores have worse outcomes, however GCS of 4 has worse outcome than GCS 3. Alternative...

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Podcast #332: Door To Furosemide Time

Author: Nick Hatch, MD Educational Pearls: Recent study argues that CHF patients receiving furosemide within 60 minutes of arrival had a lower in-hospital mortality than those receiving it after...

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Podcast # 331: Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT)

Author: Nick Hatch, MD Educational Pearls: The sodium-glucose cotransporter in the gut is essential for rehydration. Oral rehydration therapies require an equimolar concentration of glucose and sodium to be...

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Podcast #330: Behcet Disease

Author: Nick Hatch, MD Educational Pearls: Behcet Disease is an autoimmune disease that can affect any organ system. Typical symptoms include recurrent oral and genital ulcers, but more concerning...

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Podcast # 329: Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis

Author: Dylan Luyten , MD Educational Pearls: Rare autosomal dominant condition that is often misdiagnosed as a psychiatric illness. Presents as profound muscle weakness with frank paralysis that is...

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Podcast # 328: Sleep Deprivation

Author: Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls: Insufficient sleep and disrupted circadian rhythms are a major health problem today Millions of dollars, thousands of deaths, and millions of  injuries are...

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Podcast # 327: No More Hemoccults

Author: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls:   The use of fecal occult blood tests is falling out of favor in emergency departments These tests have strong evidence suggesting their...

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Podcast # 326: Valley Fever

Author: Michael Hunt, MD Educational Pearls: Valley fever is a fungal infection known as Coccidiomycosis that can present with vague symptoms like cough, fever, myalgias. A thorough history is...

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Podcast #325: Vaping and Pneumonia

Author: Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls: Being exposed to E-cigarette vapor may increase risk of pneumonia. Recent study has shown e-cigarette vapor increases quantities of Platelet-activating-receptor factor in epithelial...

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Podcast #324: Superwarfarin

Author: Rachel Beham, PharmD Educational Pearls: Some synthetic cannabinoids have been contaminated with Brodifacoum. Brodifacoum is a Vitamin K antagonist and can present with a severe coagulopathy. Brodifacoum is...

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Podcast #323: Calcium Channel Toxicity

Author: Jared Scott, M.D. Educational Pearls: Cardiac myocytes and vascular smooth muscle are dependent on an intracellular calcium influx for contraction. Pancreatic beta cells rely on calcium to release...

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Podcast #322: Methemoglobinemia

Author: Nick Hatch, M.D. Educational Pearls: Methemoglobinemia is when the iron in hemoglobin is in the Fe3+ (ferric) state rather than the normal Fe2+  (ferrous) state. Methemoglobin cannot release...

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Podcast #321: Migraine Treatment in ED

Author: Jared Scott, M.D. Educational Pearls: Recent study compared Compazine with Benadryl vs. Dilaudid for acute migraine management in the ED. Compazine + Benadryl demonstrated migraine relief in 60%...

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Podcast #320: PE in Pregnancy

Author: Don Stader, M.D. Educational Pearls: Pulmonary embolism is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality. There is disagreement among different medical societies about the value of D-dimer...

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Podcast #319: Cardiac Arrest Survival Factors

Author: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Shockable rhythms like V-fib or V-tach have a better prognosis than patients with PEA or asystole. Recent study has shown an initial electrical...

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Podcast #318: Nystagmus

Author: Erik Verzemnieks, M.D.  Educational Pearls: -Common causes of nystagmus: Congenital disorders, CNS diseases (MS, CVA), Intoxication -Drugs associated (ETOH, Ketamine, PCP, SSRI, MDMA, Lithium, Phenytoin, Barbiturates) -If a...

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Podcast #317: Elbow Dislocation

Author: John Winkler, M.D. Educational Pearls: -Lower mechanisms of injury have a lower chance of an associated fracture or major ligament injury. -One major concern is having a fracture...

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Podcast #316: Abnormalities in Alcohol Intoxication

Author: Michael Hunt, M.D. Educational Pearls: 1% of patients presenting to ED with alcohol intoxication end up going to the ICU. Most common critical illnesses were acute hypoxic respiratory...

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Podcast #315: Retropharyngeal Infections in Pediatrics

Author: Dr. Karen Woolf, MD Educational Pearls: Anatomy : base of skull to posterior mediastinum, anteriorly bounded by middle layer of deep cervical fascia and posteriorly by the deep...

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Podcast #314: Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES)

Author: Gretchen Hinson, M.D. Educational Pearls: PNES vs. epilepsy: postictal state is diagnostic of an epileptic seizure (sonorous respirations and/or confusion, lasting typically 20-30 minutes); Epileptiform seizures show decrease...

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Podcast #313: Flu Screening

Author: Peter Bakes, M.D. Educational Pearls: High risk patients: underlying lung disease, immunocompromised, extremes of age (<2 or >65), underlying cardiac/renal/neurologic disease, and pregnant women. Testing: RT-PCR (RNA based...

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Podcast #312: SCIWORA

Author: Sam Killian, M.D. Educational Pearls: Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) is a diagnosis defined as traumatic injury to spine with clinical sx of traumatic myelopathy (paraplegia,...

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Podcast #311: Recurrence of Seizures in Pediatrics

Author: Aaron Lessen, M.D. Educational Pearls: Recurrence rate for first time unprovoked seizures – 5% after 48 hours, 14% at 2 weeks , 30% after 4 months. Higher risk...

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Podcast #310: Bicarb in DKA

Author: Gretchen Hinson, M.D. Educational Pearls: Controversial topic. Pathophysiology – acidosis leads to an extracellular potassium shift. Patients in DKA will be intracellularly potassium deplete, but will have a...

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Podcast #309: Return Visits to the ED for UTI

Author: Alicia Oberle, MD Educational Pearls: Recent study has shown risk factors for return included patients at high risk for resistance (nursing home, obstructive uropathy), patient where diagnogsis of...

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