- Typhlitis refers to the presence of enterocolitis in the setting of neutropenia – also known as neutropenic enterocolitis
- Commonly a result of chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies.
- The infection is usually polymicrobial/fungal and can lead to septic shock
- Usually presents with fever, abdominal pain, with associated GI complaints
- Workup includes CBC for the ANC (usually <500), and a CT abdomen (look for bowel thickening)
- Treatment typically with broad-spectrum antibiotics with or without anti-fungal agents
- Mortality can be as high as 50%
Cloutier RL. Neutropenic enterocolitis. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2009 Aug;27(3):415-22. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2009.04.002. PubMed PMID: 19646645.
Rodrigues FG, Dasilva G, Wexner SD. Neutropenic enterocolitis. World J Gastroenterol.2017 Jan 7;23(1):42-47. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v23.i1.42. Review. PubMed PMID: 28104979; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5221285.
Summarized by Will Dewispelaere, MS3 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD