Podcast # 370:  Rapid Fire Neonatal Resuscitation

Author:  Erik Verzemnieks, MD

Educational Pearls:

  • In the panic of a precipitous ED delivery, remember: Warm. Dry. Stim.  It will solve most of your problems in most scenarios
  • Start compressions if heart rate is less than 60
  • Put the pulse ox on the right hand – it may make a difference as it is preductal

Editor’s note: detecting a heart rate can be tough in a newborn – you can feel the umbilical stump or just listen with your stethoscope

 

References

Gary Weiner & Jeanette Zaichkin. Textbook of Neonatal Resuscitation (NRP), 7th Ed, 2016. American Academy of Pediatrics & American Heart Association.

Podcast # 363: Ketamine for Alcohol Withdrawal

Educational Pearls:

 

  • Recent study has shown adjunctive ketamine can be useful in setting of alcohol withdrawal.
  • Ketamine was associated with a decrease in the amount of benzodiazepines needed, likelihood of intubation, and a decrease in ICU length of stay by 3 days.
  • For patients with benzodiazepine resistance, ketamine was shown to have symptom relief in an hour and decreased rate of benzodiazepine infusion.

 

References

Pizon A, Lynch M, Benedict N, et al. 2018. Adjunct Ketamine Use in the Management of Severe Ethanol Withdrawal. Critical Care Medicine. 46(8):e768-e771.

Shah, P., McDowell, M., Ebisu, R. et al. J. Med. Toxicol. (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13181-018-0662-8

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Podcast # 361: Vertiginous Dizziness

Author: Peter Bakes, MD

Educational Pearls:

 

  • Important to find out if patients mean dysequilibrium, lightheadedness, or vertigo when patients say they are “dizzy.”
  • Differentiate central vs. peripheral vertigo
  • Central vertigo typically present with bulbar syndromes (difficulty swallowing, facial nerve palsy) and cerebellar symptoms (ataxia).
  • Peripheral vertigo typically present with sudden onset vertigo with nausea and vomiting in the absence of bulbar symptoms.
  • Episodic? BPPV or Meniere’s Disease. BPPV has not auditory symptoms and is associated with head position; Meniere’s has hearing loss, tinnitus, and ear fullness.
  • Constant? Neuronitis has no auditory symptoms, while labyrinthitis has associated hearing loss/tinnitus and is associated with a recent infection (OM).

 

References

Baloh RW. Differentiating between peripheral and central causes of vertigo. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1998; 119:55.

Chase M, Goldstein JN, Selim MH, et al. A prospective pilot study of predictors of acute stroke in emergency department patients with dizziness. Mayo Clin Proc 2014; 89:173.

Kerber KA, Brown DL, Lisabeth LD, et al. Stroke among patients with dizziness, vertigo, and imbalance in the emergency department: a population-based study. Stroke 2006; 37:2484.

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Podcast # 360: Epidural Abscess Screening

Author: Dylan Luyten, MD.

Educational Pearls:

 

  • Dangerous causes of back pain: AAA, cauda equina syndrome, epidural abscess.
  • Young person with back pain needs to be evaluated for injection drug use (major risk factor).
  • Patient with focal neurologic deficits (FND) require an MRI.  Patients without FND can be screened with ESR and CRP. An ESR < 20 & CRP < 1 can effectively rule out epidural abscess as it has a 90% sensitivity for epidural abscess.
  • Treatment is IV antibiotics and surgical debridement.

 

References

Davis DP et al. Prospective evaluation of a clinical decision guideline to diagnose spinal epidural abscess in patients who present to the emergency department with spine pain, Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine. 2011. 14:765-770.

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Podcast # 359: Normal EKG

Author: Sam Killian, MD.

Educational Pearls:

 

  • Computer interpretation has a very good negative predictive value of a normal EKG (99%).
  • Of 222 interpreted as “normal,” 13 were deemed to have some abnormality by a cardiologist in a recent study.
  • Those 13 EKG’s were read by 2 ER docs, and only 1 missed interpretation warranted a move from triage to a bed.

 

References

Katie E. Hughes KE., Scott M. Lewis SM., Laurence Katz and Jonathan Jones  Safety of Computer Interpretation of Normal Triage Electrocardiograms. 2017. Academic Emergency Medicine 24(1):120-124. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/acem.13067/full.

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Podcast # 358: Affordable ear drop alternatives

Educational Pearls:

 

  • Otic (ear) specific antibiotic drops can be expensive
  • Opthalmic (eye) versions are basically identical and can be used as an affordable substitute as many are on the $4 drug lists
  • But don’t do the reverse (don’t use ear drops on the eye)
  • Use caution when administering aminoglycoside if tympanic membrane rupture is present

 

References

https://tgtfiles.target.com/pharmacy/WCMP02-032536_RxGenericsList_NM7.pdf

http://i.walmart.com/i/if/hmp/fusion/four_dollar_drug_list.pdf

https://www.uptodate.com/contents/external-otitis-treatment

 

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Podcast #357: Local Anesthetic Toxicity

Author: Michael Hunt, MD

Educational Pearls:

 

  • Toxicity happens from local anesthetics being given too fast, too much, or in the unintended spot
  • Systemic toxicity manifests first with neurologic symptoms like circumoral numbness, tinnitus, blurred vision, nausea, and even seizures. Severe toxicity can then progress to arrhythmias and cardiac arrest.
  • Maximum doses of lidocaine: 4 mg/kg; and with epinephrine: 7mg/kg.
  • Maximum dose of bupivacaine: 2mg/kg; with epinephrine 3mg/kg

 

Editor note: treat seizures with benzodiazepines and avoid propofol for sedation; severe toxicity can also be treated with a 20%  lipid emulsion, though there is debate on its efficacy

 

References

Dickerson DM, Apfelbaum JL. Local anesthetic systemic toxicity. Aesthet Surg J. 2014 Sep;34(7):1111-9. doi: 10.1177/1090820X14543102.

Neal JM, Mulroy MF, Weinberg GL; American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.. American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine checklist for managing local anesthetic systemic toxicity: 2012 version. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2012 Jan-Feb;37(1):16-8. doi: 10.1097/AAP.0b013e31822e0d8a.

Vasques F, Behr AU, Weinberg G, Ori C, Di Gregorio G. A Review of Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity Cases Since Publication of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia Recommendations: To Whom It May Concern. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2015 Nov-Dec;40(6):698-705. doi: 10.1097/AAP.0000000000000320.

 

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Podcast # 356: Babies can’t be born addicted

Author: Don Stader, MD.

Educational Pearls:

 

  • A baby can be born dependent on opioids but not addicted to them.
  • Opioid addiction (Opioid Use Disorder) is a disease of mature brains and is characterized by compulsive drug use despite adverse consequences.
  • Opioid addiction is a disease that affects the reward center of the brain
  • Pregnant patients struggling with addiction do better when started on buprenorphine or methadone. This treatment will cause opioid withdrawal syndrome in newborns, but not the long term morbidity and mortality of illicit opioids.

 

References

Gowing L, Farrell MF, Bornemann R, Sullivan LE, Ali R. Oral substitution treatment of injecting opioid users for prevention of HIV infection. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 8: CD004145. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004145.pub4.

Volkow ND, Koob GF, McLellan AT ( 2016). “Neurobiologic Advances from the Brain Disease Model of Addiction.” New England Journal of Medicine. 374 (4): 363?371.

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Podcast #355: Syphilis

Author: Aaron Lessen, MD

Educational Pearls:

 

  • Re-emerging STI.
  • Progresses through distinct phases if untreated:
  • Primary syphilis: frequently overlooked because initial chancre is painless.
  • Secondary syphilis: viral syndrome, rash on trunk, palms, and soles.
  • Latent syphilis: asymptomatic period, lasting 5-20 years.
  • Tertiary syphilis: includes neurosyphilis (dementia, encephalitis, etc.) and cardiovascular syphilis (aortitis, etc).
  • Treatment penicillin G 2.4 million units once for primary or secondary treatment; once weekly for 3 weeks for latent/tertiary.

 

References

Mattei, P., Beachkofsky, T., Gilson, R., Wisco, O. Syphilis: A reemerging infection. 2012. American Family Physician., 86(5), 433-440.

 

 

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