Podcast # 416: Wide Complex Tachycardia

Author: Aaron Lessen, MD

Educational Pearls:

  • Defined as QRS over 120 ms and rate over 120
  • Two major rhythms = Vetricular tachycardia (VT) or SVT with aberrancy
  • Safest approach is to assume it is VT
  • Synchronized Cardioversion is preferred even for stable VT for multiple reasons including safety and efficacy
  • Procainamide is preferred pharmacologic option
  • Amiodarone is less preferred third option
  • Calcium channel blockers (i.e. diltiazem) can worsen certain rhythms and should be avoided

References:

Long B, Koyfman A. Best Clinical Practice: Emergency Medicine Management of Stable Monomorphic Ventricular Tachycardia. J Emerg Med. 2017 Apr;52(4):484-492. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2016.09.010. Epub 2016 Oct 15. Review. PubMed PMID: 27751700.

Summarized by Travis Barlock, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD

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Podcast # 415: Myofascial Pain Syndrome & Fibromyalgia

Author: Ryan Circh, MD

Educational Pearls:

  • Myofascial pain syndrome (MFPS) is typically unilateral with discrete points of palpable pain
  • Often secondary to repeated use and poor posture.
  • MFPS typically responds very well to trigger point injections.
  • Fibromyalgia is bilateral and diffuse and is thought to have a psychological component
  • Some of the best pharmacological treatments for fibromyalgia are Tramadol and Flexeril

References:

Tofferi JK, Jackson JL, O’Malley PG. Treatment of fibromyalgia with cyclobenzaprine: A meta-analysis. Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Feb 15;51(1):9-13. PubMed PMID: 14872449.

Goldenberg DL, Burckhardt C, Crofford L. Management of fibromyalgia syndrome. JAMA. 2004 Nov 17;292(19):2388-95. Review. PubMed PMID: 15547167.

Giamberardino MA, Affaitati G, Fabrizio A, Costantini R. Myofascial pain syndromes and their evaluation. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2011 Apr;25(2):185-98. doi: 10.1016/j.berh.2011.01.002. Review. PubMed PMID: 22094195.

Borg-Stein J, Iaccarino MA. Myofascial pain syndrome treatments. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2014 May;25(2):357-74. doi: 10.1016/j.pmr.2014.01.012. Epub 2014 Mar 17. Review. PubMed PMID: 24787338

Summarized by Travis Barlock, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD

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Podcast # 414: Acute Limb Ischemia

Author: Dylan Luyten, MD

Educational Pearls:

 

  • Symptoms of acute limb ischemia are the 5 P’s: Pulselessness, pain, pallor, paresthesias, and poikilothermia
  • Sudden onset of non-traumatic extremity pain should raise concern for this diagnosis
  • Obtaining an ankle brachial index (ABI) can help confirm the diagnosis
  • Consultation with vascular surgery should be immediately after the clinical diagnosis and before any further delays to obtain further imaging

 

References:

Santistevan JR. Acute Limb Ischemia: An Emergency Medicine Approach. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2017 Nov;35(4):889-909. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2017.07.006. Epub 2017 Aug 23. Review. PubMed PMID: 28987435.

Summarized by Travis Barlock, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD

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Podcast # 413: Fascia Iliaca Block

Author: Katie Sprinkle, MD

Educational Pearls:

 

  • The fascia iliaca block is useful for hip and proximal femur fractures.
  • Typically involves injecting 40-60 mL of diluted bupivacaine (0.25%) under the fascia iliaca (or other anesthetic)
  • Anesthesia is achieved of the femoral, obturator, and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves.
  • Monitor for signs of bupivacaine toxicity (paresthesias, AMS, seizures, arrhythmias)
  • Intralipid can be an effective treatment for life-threatening toxicity

 

References:

Hoegberg LC, Bania TC, Lavergne V, Bailey B, Turgeon AF, Thomas SH, Morris M, Miller-Nesbitt A, Mégarbane B, Magder S, Gosselin S; Lipid Emulsion Workgroup.. Systematic review of the effect of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy for local anesthetic toxicity. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2016 Mar;54(3):167-93. doi: 10.3109/15563650.2015.1121270. Epub 2016 Feb 6. Review. PubMed PMID: 26853119.

https://www.acepnow.com/article/control-hip-fracture-pain-without-opioids-using-ultrasound-guided-fascia-iliaca-compartment-block/?singlepage=1&theme=print-friendly

Summarized by Travis Barlock, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD

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Podcast #412: tPa Mission Creep

Author: Aaron Lessen, MD

Educational Pearls:

  • Patients with “minor” strokes with NIHSS 0 to 5  can still end up having poor long-term outcomes
  • Recent study compared use of alteplase vs. aspirin for these patients and saw no difference in regards to favorable neurologic outcome at 90 days
  • Study was ended early due to patient recruitment difficulties

Editor’s note: though ended early, it is debatable whether even if appropriately powered there would have been an identifiable benefit

 

References:

Khatri P, Kleindorfer DO, Devlin T, Sawyer RN Jr, Starr M, Mejilla J, Broderick J, Chatterjee A, Jauch EC, Levine SR, Romano JG, Saver JL, Vagal A, Purdon B, Devenport J, Pavlov A, Yeatts SD; PRISMS Investigators. Effect of Alteplase vs Aspirin on Functional Outcome for Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke and Minor Nondisabling Neurologic Deficits: The PRISMS Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2018 Jul 10;320(2):156-166. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.8496. PubMed PMID: 29998337.

Summary by Travis Barlock, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD

 

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Podcast #411: Mass Casualty Incident

 Author: Dylan Luyten, MD

Educational Pearls:

 

  • Early recognition that the current situation is a mass casualty incident (MCI) is essential with establishing a sole provider/nurse to oversee
  • Team members labeling themselves by name and role is also helpful
  • Practice and prepare for these unfortunate events

 

Editor’s note: This podcast comes at the end of a MCI drill over several days

References:

http://epmonthly.com/article/not-heroes-wear-capes-one-las-vegas-ed-saved-hundreds-lives-worst-mass-shooting-u-s-history/

 

Summary by Travis Barlock, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD

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Podcast #410: FAMbulance

Author: Aaron Lessen, MD

Educational Pearls:

  • Retrospective study looking at type of transportation and mortality outcomes for patients with penetrating trauma
  • Mortality was 2.2 % for those brought in by private vehicle compared to 11.6% by EMS

 

 

Editor’s note: the above is raw mortality – even after risk adjustments the odds ratio of death was statistically significant for penetrating injuries, which held true even over multiple trauma systems. Shout out to Dr Haut as well!

References:

Wandling MW, Nathens AB, Shapiro MB, Haut ER. Association of Prehospital Mode of Transport With Mortality in Penetrating Trauma: A Trauma System-Level Assessment of Private Vehicle Transportation vs Ground Emergency Medical Services. JAMA Surg. 2018 Feb 1;153(2):107-113. doi: 10.1001/jamasurg.2017.3601. PubMed PMID: 28975247; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5838586.

Summary by Travis Barlock, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD

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Podcast #409:  Acute CHF Second Liners

Author: Nick Hatch, MD

Educational Pearls:

 

  • Quick review on typical treatments for acute CHF:
    • Nitrates are a mainstay to reduce preload
    • Furosemide has fallen out of favor in regards to urgency but still essential; it can also be utilized in those with poor renal function
  • Before going into the weeds:
    • Phlebotomy can be used to remove volume and may be helpful in certain clinical scenarios
    • Trapping venous blood by using blood pressure cuffs on three of four extremities was a very early treatment of CHF

 

References:

Alzahri MS, Rohra A, Peacock WF. Nitrates as a Treatment of Acute Heart Failure. Card Fail Rev. 2016 May;2(1):51-55. doi: 10.15420/cfr.2016:3:3. PubMed PMID: 28785453; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5490950.

Paterna S, Di Gaudio F, La Rocca V, Balistreri F, Greco M, Torres D, Lupo U, Rizzo G, di Pasquale P, Indelicato S, Cuttitta F, Butler J, Parrinello G. Hypertonic Saline in Conjunction with High-Dose Furosemide Improves Dose-Response Curves in Worsening Refractory Congestive Heart Failure. Adv Ther. 2015 Oct;32(10):971-82. doi: 10.1007/s12325-015-0254-9. Epub 2015 Oct 31. PubMed PMID: 26521190; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4635178.

Huijskes RV, Hoogenberg K, Wiesfeld AC, Pijl ME, van Gelder IC. Phlebotomies as a treatment of serious heart failure due to haemochromatosis: a case report. Neth Heart J. 2009;17(11):438-41.

Burch, George E., and Nicholas P. DePasquale. “Congestive Heart Failure—Acute Pulmonary Edema.” JAMA 208.10 (1969): 1895-1897.

 

Summary by Travis Barlock, MS4  | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD

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Podcast #408: Go the hell to sleep

Author: Don Stader, MD

Educational Pearls:

  • Recent study showed efficacy 5mg IM midazolam > 10mg IM olanzapine > 10mg IM haloperidol for quickly sedating an agitated patient
  • If you have access, ketamine intravenous is the fastest
  • Olanzapine should be used with caution in elderly patients because of its anticholinergic properties
  • Ketamine can transiently worsen psychosis in some mental illness
  • Haloperidol is contraindicated in patients with prolonged QT
  • Olanzapine can be safely given intravenous as another option to your sedating arsenal

References:

Klein LR, Driver BE, Miner JR, Martel ML, Hessel M, Collins JD, Horton GB, Fagerstrom E, Satpathy R, Cole JB. Intramuscular Midazolam, Olanzapine, Ziprasidone, or Haloperidol for Treating Acute Agitation in the Emergency Department. Ann Emerg Med. 2018 Oct;72(4):374-385. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2018.04.027. Epub 2018 Jun 7. PubMed PMID: 29885904.

Chew ML, Mulsant BH, Pollock BG, Lehman ME, Greenspan A, Kirshner MA, Bies RR, Kapur S, Gharabawi G. A model of anticholinergic activity of atypical antipsychotic medications. Schizophr Res. 2006 Dec;88(1-3):63-72. Epub 2006 Aug 22. PubMed PMID: 16928430.

Mankowitz SL, Regenberg P, Kaldan J, Cole JB. Ketamine for Rapid Sedation of Agitated Patients in the Prehospital and Emergency Department Settings: A Systematic Review and Proportional Meta-Analysis. J Emerg Med. 2018 Nov;55(5):670-681. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2018.07.017. Epub 2018 Sep 7. PubMed PMID: 30197153.

Summary by Travis Barlock, MS4  | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD

 

 

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Podcast #407:  Choose your own blister adventure

Author: Don Stader, MD

Educational Pearls:

 

  • Three options for a blister in partial thickness burns:  do nothing, unroof it, or poke a hole in it
  • Recent study suggest that aspirating the blister may be more effective in regards to wound healing
  • The overlying skin acts as a bio-band-aid and patients recover slightly faster

References:

Ro HS, Shin JY, Sabbagh MD, Roh SG, Chang SC, Lee NH. Effectiveness of aspiration or deroofing for blister management in patients with burns: A prospective randomized controlled trial. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Apr;97(17):e0563. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000010563. PubMed PMID: 29703044; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5944508.

Summary by Travis Barlock, MS4  | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD

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