Pharmacology Archives - Page 7 of 9 - The Emergency Medical Minute

Pharmacology

Podcast # 372: The Latest on Epinephrine in Cardiac Arrest

Author:  Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: 8014 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest randomized to epinephrine vs placebo 30-day survival was not dramatically better between groups (3.2%in the epinephrine group and 2.4% in the placebo group) Functional neurological outcome was nearly identical at 2.2% and 1.9% of patients Adds to literature that epinephrine provides little important…

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Podcast #357: Local Anesthetic Toxicity

Author: Michael Hunt, MD Educational Pearls: Toxicity happens from local anesthetics being given too fast, too much, or in the unintended spot Systemic toxicity manifests first with neurologic symptoms like circumoral numbness, tinnitus, blurred vision, nausea, and even seizures. Severe toxicity can then progress to arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. Maximum doses of lidocaine: 4 mg/kg;…

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Podcast # 356: Babies can’t be born addicted

Author: Don Stader, MD. Educational Pearls: A baby can be born dependent on opioids but not addicted to them. Opioid addiction (Opioid Use Disorder) is a disease of mature brains and is characterized by compulsive drug use despite adverse consequences. Opioid addiction is a disease that affects the reward center of the brain Pregnant patients…

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Podcast # 341: Tenecteplase vs. Alteplase

Author: Rachel Beham, PharmD Educational Pearls: Tenecteplase is more specific for fibrin and has a longer half-life than alteplase. In setting of ischemic stroke, tenecteplase before thrombectomy was associated with a statistically higher incidence of reperfusion and better functional outcome than alteplase.   References Bruce C.V. Campbell B et al (2018). Tenecteplase versus Alteplase before…

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Podcast # 336: Hypokalemia

Author: Dylan Luyten, MD Educational Pearls: Most important questions to answer with low potassium are 1. What are their symptoms? 2. Can they take potassium by mouth? Oral repletion is faster, cheaper, and more effective than IV repletion. Give IV potassium when patients have K < 2.5 mmol/L or present with arrhythmias and/or characteristic EKG…

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Podcast #332: Door To Furosemide Time

Author: Nick Hatch, MD Educational Pearls: Recent study argues that CHF patients receiving furosemide within 60 minutes of arrival had a lower in-hospital mortality than those receiving it after (2.3% vs. 6.0%, p=0.002). A flaw in the study is that there were significant baseline differences between groups. References: Matsue Y et al. Time-to-Furosemide Treatment and…

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Podcast # 331: Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT)

Author: Nick Hatch, MD Educational Pearls: The sodium-glucose cotransporter in the gut is essential for rehydration. Oral rehydration therapies require an equimolar concentration of glucose and sodium to be effective. ORT has saved millions of lives globally. Consider using ORT in patients with dehydration. Especially useful in resource limited settings. References: Victora CG, Bryce J,…

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Podcast #324: Superwarfarin

Author: Rachel Beham, PharmD Educational Pearls: Some synthetic cannabinoids have been contaminated with Brodifacoum. Brodifacoum is a Vitamin K antagonist and can present with a severe coagulopathy. Brodifacoum is commonly known as “superwarfarin” and has a very long half life of 120+ days. Check PT/INR in patients with a bleeding diathesis in setting of synthetic…

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Podcast #310: Bicarb in DKA

Author: Gretchen Hinson, M.D. Educational Pearls: Controversial topic. Pathophysiology – acidosis leads to an extracellular potassium shift. Patients in DKA will be intracellularly potassium deplete, but will have a falsely normal/elevated serum potassium. 3 risk of giving bicarb in DKA – alkalosis will drive potassium intracellularly but can overshoot (hypokalemia) and  increase risk of arrhythmias;…

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Podcast #306: Tramadol Drama

Author: Nick Hatch, M.D. Educational Pearls Tramadol acts at multiple receptors and is a partial agonist at the mu opioid receptor, but also blocks reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine throughout the body among others.   One major side effect to be aware of is that it lowers the seizure threshold. Useful in setting of pain…

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