Pharmacology

Podcast # 478: Psychedelics and Depression

Author: Chris Holmes, MD Educational Pearls: Hallucinogenic drugs have been in use since ancient times for both medical and recreational purposes Ayahausca is an ancient psychedelic with origins in Bolivia that causes intense vomiting followed by a psychedelic experience This and other hallucinogens are gaining gaining interest for their use in depression with some startling…

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Podcast # 473: Direct to Consumer Antibiotics

Author: Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls: A recent study in Pediatrics compared the rates of antibiotic prescriptions for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) between direct to consumer (DTC) telemedicine, urgent care, and primary care providers Among the nearly 530,000 visits studied, the rate of antibiotic prescription was 52%, 42% and 31% for telemedicine, urgent care, and…

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Podcast # 472: SMART Crystalloids

Author: Gretchen Hinson, MD Educational Pearls: In most healthcare settings, normal saline (NS) has become ubiquitous as an intravenous fluid despite some potential drawbacks Compared to normal saline, a balanced crystalloid (either lactated Ringer’s or Plasma-Lyte) was associated with a lower composite endpoint of mortality, renal replacement therapy, and renal injury in SMART (Isotonic Solutions…

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Podcast # 471: Cyclic Vomiting

Author: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is different than cannabis hyperemesis syndrome (CHS). It is important to differentiate the two. CHS is thought to be caused by activation of THC receptors in the gut CVS is associated with migraines and therefore responds to similar medications Olanzapine (Zyprexa) is an alternative to…

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Podcast # 470: Zofran and Pregnancy

Author: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Ondansetron (Zofran) is one of the latest drugs that has had concerns raised about side effects, particularly in pregnancy 2018 study probed two birth defect databases to assess increases in 51 major birth defects with increased exposure to ondansetron Only two of the 51 had even a modest increase,…

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Podcast # 463: Buproprion Overdose

Author: Erik Verzemnieks, MD Educational Pearls: Buproprion is used as an antidepressant and for smoking cessation Severe buproprion overdoses can cause seizures and lead to cardiac dysrhythmias Benzodiazepines are treatment of choice for seizures Bicarbonate and Interlipid are also possible treatment options with less evidence References Stall N, Godwin J, Juurlink D. Bupropion abuse and…

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Podcast # 462: Death after OD

Author: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: 10% of patients seen in the emergency department for opioid overdose patients will die within a year Half of these overdoses will occur in the next month This mortality rate is higher than patients with STEMI, of which 7% will die within one year Take-home naloxone, as well as…

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Podcast # 459 Clonidine Ingestion

Author:  Julian Orenstein, MD Educational Pearls:   Severe clonidine ingestion can present as a fluctuating mental status between typically accompanied by changes in vital signs (hypotension/bradycardia) Respiratory depression requiring intubation is not uncommon   References Isbister GK, Heppell SP, Page CB, Ryan NM. Adult clonidine overdose: prolonged bradycardia and central nervous system depression, but not…

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Podcast # 458: A Tylenol a Day Keeps the Delirium Away?

Author: Nick Hatch, MD Educational Pearls:   A recent study investigated the effect of scheduled IV acetaminophen on the incidence of delirium in post-CABG patients in the ICU The use of scheduled IV acetaminophen reduced the rate of delirium in these patients compared to placebo This may be due to the analgesic effect of acetaminophen…

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Podcast # 455: Hunting for PeeCP

Author: Michael Hunt, MD Educational Pearls:   Like all tests, urine toxicology (utox) screens can have false positives Prescription medications such as demerol, antipsychotics, ketamine, and tramadol can all produce a false positive utox for PCP Over-the-counter medication such as dextromethorphan also mimic PCP on utox   References Doyon S. (January 2014). False Positive Urine…

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