Medical Minute Archives - Page 3 of 59 - The Emergency Medical Minute

Medical Minute

Podcast 577:  Immunotherapies

Contributor: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Checkpoint inhibition normally helps our body detect abnormal cells and terminate it but cancerous cells often are able to avoid this countermeasure Monoclonal antibodies that bind to checkpoint inhibitors can stop cancerous cells from turning off immunologic T cells and allows the immune system to continue to attack cancers….

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Podcast 576: Status Epilepticus Drugs

Author: Charlene Gnisci Melton, PharmD Educational Pearls: Status Epilepticus is defined as continuous seizure activity for >5 minutes, or 2 or more seizures without full return to consciousness between events Status epilepticus is a true neurologic emergency with significant morbidity and mortality Aggressive, early treatment of status epilepticus is essential as GABA receptors will regress…

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 Podcast 575:  Light on the Sedation

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Studies have shown that patients who are under deeper sedation in the ICU have worse outcomes. Recent study compared lighter vs heavier sedation of patients in the emergency department receiving mechanical ventilation Patients receiving lighter sedation in the ED were often continued in the ICU Patients who had lighter…

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Podcast 574:  Cyanide Toxicity

Contributor: Nick Tsipis, MD Educational Pearls: Significant cyanide exposure most commonly occurs from fire/smoke exposure particularly when plastics are involved Cyanide binds to cytochrome oxidase leading to the use of anaerobic metabolism which causes a profound lactic acidosis Classic toxicity includes a rapid loss of consciousness, hypotension, bradycardia, respiratory depression, and seizures Mild exposures can…

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Podcast 573:  Arsenic Toxicity

Contributor: Nick Tsipis, MD Educational Pearls: Arsenic is a heavy metal that binds to multiple cellular enzymes and inhibits aerobic metabolism It is primarily absorbed through the skin, respiratory and GI tract. The classic symptoms of heavy metal exposure are GI irritation (watery diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain) with multisystem organ failure.  Neuropathy can present…

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Podcast 572:  Locked In Syndrome

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Locked in syndrome results typically from an infarct of the basilar artery leading to infarction of the brainstem but typically preservation of the higher structures The result is complete paralysis with preserved cognitive function, hence the name Because of their location within the brainstem, ocular movements are sometimes preserved,…

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Podcast 571:  Digital Blocks

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Traditional digital block involves dorsal approach on either side of the digit, injecting local anesthetic along each side to numb all four nerves of the digit Newer approach involves a single injection along the palmar surface at MCP joint Recent study further compared a proximal vs distal single palmar…

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Podcast 570: Oh no no no to O2

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Supplemental oxygen is not a completely benign intervention.  A recent meta-analysis found that O2 saturations above 96% while on supplemental O2 were associated with worse outcomes. Only start a patient on supplemental oxygen if absolutely necessary and aim for a goal of no higher than 96%. References Derek K…

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Podcast 569:  The eFAST Exam

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls:.   Focused assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) exam and the extended-FAST (eFAST) are essential components of current trauma care and evaluation There has been an accumulation of research to provide an estimate of effectiveness of identifying certain injuries with ultrasound: For identifying a pneumothorax, the sensitivity ~70% and specificity…

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Podcast 568: Shock ‘em! 

Contributor: John Winkler, MD Educational Pearls: Unstable ventricular tachycardia (VT) typically manifests with syncope, shortness of breath, diaphoresis and/or chest pain with hemodynamic instability Electrical cardioversion of unstable ventricular tachycardia is first line treatment Starting with a higher energy level (or just using the maximum) when performing cardioversion may set you up for better success…

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