Infectious Disease Archives - Page 4 of 9 - The Emergency Medical Minute

Infectious Disease

Podcast #398: Who is gonna fail your antibiotic plan?

Author: Erik Verzemnieks, MD Educational Pearls: Recent study provides at least some evidence to help predict antibiotic failure for cellulitis, which is not necessarily straight forward Intuitive risk factors such as recent cellulitis, chronic ulcers, history of MRSA are associated with antibiotic treatment failure Oddly, tachypnea at triage was associated with the highest odds ratio…

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Podcast # 392: Maggot Therapy

Author: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Interest started as it was noticed soldiers who had wounds infected with maggots had better outcomes than those without maggots Studies have shown that wound care with maggots is essentially equivalent to traditional therapy with oxygen, antibiotics, and debridement Maggots debride the wound with proteolytic enzymes, sterilize the wound,…

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Podcast # 391: Necrotizing Fasciitis

Author: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Necrotizing fasciitis is an infection of the deep soft tissues with destruction of the muscle fascia and overlying fat Think of it if pain is out of proportion to your exam Polymicrobial and Clostridium species typically cause condition in susceptible individuals (immunocompromised, diabetics, obese, penetrating injury) Group A strep…

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Podcast #387: Fluoroquinolones are Perfectly Safe?

Author:  Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Fluoroquinolones can cause connective tissue disruption leading not only to tendon rupture but also aortic dissection. Retrospective study from Taiwan showed over a 2x higher rate of dissection when exposed to fluoroquinolones (1.6% vs 0.6%). Remember to think about aortic dissection when you have a patient with chest pain…

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Podcast #379: Patient Perspectives of the Flu

Author:  Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls: Patients may have certain fears or expectations about the flu based on hearsay and other less reliable sources Taking extra time explaining the risks of the flu may help base these expectations more in reality This includes providing good return precautions and acknowledging that the disease can still be…

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Podcast #377: Endocarditis

Author:  Nick Tsipis, MD Educational Pearls: Persistent fever or positive blood cultures should raise suspicion for endocarditis Patients with recent dental procedures, recent cardiac surgeries are at risk, or who inject drugs are at higher risk Physical exam findings may include fever with a new murmur, Janeway lesions, Osler nodes, and/or splinter hemorrhages   References:…

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Podcast # 373: Legionnaires Disease

Author:  Gretchen Hinson, MD Educational Pearls: Legionnaires disease refers to a severe pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophilia and occurs typically at the extremes of age Associated gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea/vomiting/diarrhea) may be present Hyponatremia is a common laboratory finding Legionella urinary antigen can be a convenient test to identify the infection Treatment is with fluoroquinolones, macrolides…

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Podcast # 360: Epidural Abscess Screening

Author: Dylan Luyten, MD. Educational Pearls: Dangerous causes of back pain: AAA, cauda equina syndrome, epidural abscess. Young person with back pain needs to be evaluated for injection drug use (major risk factor). Patient with focal neurologic deficits (FND) require an MRI.  Patients without FND can be screened with ESR and CRP. An ESR <…

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Podcast #355: Syphilis

Author: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Re-emerging STI. Progresses through distinct phases if untreated: Primary syphilis: frequently overlooked because initial chancre is painless. Secondary syphilis: viral syndrome, rash on trunk, palms, and soles. Latent syphilis: asymptomatic period, lasting 5-20 years. Tertiary syphilis: includes neurosyphilis (dementia, encephalitis, etc.) and cardiovascular syphilis (aortitis, etc). Treatment penicillin G…

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Podcast # 353: Xofluza

Author: Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls: Japan recently approved baloxavir marboxil (Xofluza), which may potentially “kill” Flu A/B within 24 hours Recent RCT trial showed superiority over oseltamavir (Tamiflu) in cessation of viral shedding (24 vs 72 hours) Compared to placebo, superior in time to symptom resolution (53.7 vs 80.7  hours) Administered as single dose…

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