Cardiovascular Archives - Page 3 of 11 - The Emergency Medical Minute

Cardiovascular

Podcast 524:  Bacterial Endocarditis 

Contributor: Sue Chilton, MD Educational Pearls: More intracardiac devices and injection drug abuse are thought to be increasing incidence of endocarditis Classic signs of endocarditis have included: Osler nodes (painful hemorrhagic lesions on hands and feet), Janeway lesions (painless hemorrhagic lesions on the hands and feet), and splinter hemorrhages in the nail beds Other classic…

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Podcast 520:  Approach to the arresting patient

Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Peri-arrest patients present a particular challenge to ED providers, as the differential is broad and time is critical  The differential for near cardiac arrest includes the “H’s and T’s”, just as in true cardiac arrest  The 6 H’s include: hypoxia, hypo/hyperkalemia, hypovolemia (including shock states), hydrogen (acidosis), hypothermia  The…

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Podcast #497: Does my patient with CP have ACS?

Author: Dylan Luyten, MD Educational Pearls: While certain aspects of the history, exam, and EKG may increase likelihood of ACS, there is no one element that performs well on its own Elements of the history have been found to have different likelihood ratios, which can increase or decrease the probability of a patient having ACS…

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Podcast # 490: Canadian Syncope Rule

Contributor: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Syncope is usually benign but can be caused by serious etiologies which include: PE, certain cardiac arrhythmias, AAA, intracranial bleed/stroke The Canadian Syncope Rule appears to identify those patients with syncope and low risk of serious outcomes The score is based on vital signs, EKG and history Negative scores…

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Podcast # 483: Dual Antiplatelet Therapy in TIA

Contributor: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Antiplatelets include Aspirin and Clopidogrel, and are generally used for arterial clotting (MI, stroke) Anticoagulants such as Coumadin, Xarelto, Eliquis are generally used for venous clotting (DVT/PE) Growing data suggests that dual antiplatelet therapy (Aspirin+Clopidogrel) is superior to aspirin alone in reducing stroke for diagnosed with TIA References: Kheiri…

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Podcast # 479: Clots and Pregnancy

Author:  Nick Hatch, MD Educational Pearls: Pregnancy is a hypercoagulable state, which predisposes women to venous thromboembolism, but also elevates levels of circulating d-dimer A recent study evaluated the YEARS protocol in combination of adjusted d-dimer cutoffs in pregnant women to evaluate for DVT and PE Using this protocol, only 1 DVT was missed. No…

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Podcast # 474: Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

Author: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: The differential diagnosis for pedal edema includes issues in the heart, kidney, and liver Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is an important and common cause of right heart failure. Nighttime hypoventilation leads to pulmonary hypertension, causing right heart strain followed by right heart failure OHS criteria includes obesity, sleep disordered…

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Podcast # 460: Hunting for PE in Syncope

Author:  Michael Hunt, MD Educational Pearls:   Most causes of syncope are benign Pulmonary embolism can result in syncope and is life threatening A recent study of Canadian and US ED patients with syncope showed that 0.4% of patients had a PE at 30 day follow-up PE should always be considered in cases of syncope…

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Podcast # 452: CADASIL

Author: Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls: Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) occurs in 1:100000 individuals The disease is caused by a defect in the NOTCH3 gene on chromosome 19 It is an important cause of stroke in young patients Features include ischemia, cognitive deficits, migraines, psychiatric disease, coma, and seizure,…

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Podcast #441: Is Heparin Worthless for ACS?

Author: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls:   Recent study demonstrated patients with non-STEMI treated with heparin had no difference in survival, but had an increased risk of major bleeding Heparin may be an outdated medication in the era of dual anti-platelet therapy and PCI Heparin may fall to the wayside like other former treatments for…

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