Author: Peter Bakes, M.D.
- A TIA is defined as focal neurological deficit that resolves within 24 hours and has negative imaging. The etiology is a transient thrombus, embolus, or narrowing of a branch of a cerebral artery.
- Screening tests are generally negative and low-yield. MRI and vascular imaging are usually done to look for reversible causes.
- Patients presenting with TIA are usually admitted because of a higher risk for stroke. However, there are some patients that are low-risk and do not require admission. Risk can be assessed using the “ABCD” mnemonic: Age>60, BP (history of HTN), Clinical presentation (area of deficit), Diabetes/Duration of symptoms. See reference link for scoring sheet.
- Patients with a low enough score may be eligible for outpatient follow-up.
Author: Jared Scott, M.D.
- Overall, medical providers are bad at detecting pulses.
- However, only 2% of patients do not have a detectable DP pulse.
- In one study, for patients with limb claudication, there was only about 50% agreement on the presence of a DP pulse.
References: Brearley et al. Peripheral pulse palpation: an unreliable physical sign. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. 1992
Author: Jared Scott, M.D.
- The foramen ovale (FO) connects the left and right atria to allow oxygenated blood to bypass the developing lungs, it usually closes at birth but for some it remains patent (PFO).
- A PFO allows clots to cross from the venous to arterial circulation, increasing the likelihood of stroke.
- PFO is present in 25% of general population, present in 50% of those with stroke of unknown cause, and very common those with stroke under 50 years old.
- Treat with anticoagulation or surgical correction.
Author: Dave Rosenberg, M.D.
- MI and GERD can present similarly. For example, 47% with angina report increased belching with an anginal attack, and 20% of people with an MI describe symptoms of indigestion that are relieved by antacids.
- Overall, GERD is more common in those with CAD, so don’t be “reassured” by GERD symptoms in the setting of chest pain.
Author: Nick Hatch, M.D.
- CPR-induced consciousness is a phenomenon that occurs when someone who was previously unconscious and is undergoing CPR regains consciousness and makes purposeful movements.
- Studies have shown that this phenomenon is increasing, likely because of increased quality of CPR.
- Many people use a sedative such as ketamine to keep patients unconscious to reduce the psychologic trauma of CPR.
- 39% of people who survive CPR with good neurologic details remember the process of CPR.
Joshua Pound, P. Richard Verbeek, and Sheldon Cheske. CPR Induced Consciousness During Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Case Report on an Emerging Phenomenon. 2017. Prehospital Emergency Care Vol. 21.
Author: Sam Killian, M.D.
- Not every troponin elevation is an MI.
- Trop elevates in about an hour in ACS and stays elevated for days.
- Non-MI conditions that cause elevated troponin: Critical illness (sepsis), increased cardiac demand, right heart strain, LV dysfunction, hypotension, pressor use, acute PE, SAH, chronic renal failure, CHF, aortic dissection, and peri/myocarditis.
- Elevated troponin in settings other than MI is correlated with increased mortality.
References: Korff S, Katus HA, Giannitsis E. Differential diagnosis of elevated troponins. Heart. 2006;92(7):987-993. doi:10.1136/hrt.2005.071282.
Author: Aaron Lessen, M.D.
- Atrial fibrillation is common.
- One of the best treatments for a fib is cardioversion back into sinus rhythm.
- Cardioversion may increase stroke risk if A-Fib duration is greater than 48 hours, but some new data suggests that this risk may happen as soon as 12 hours.
- However, newer studies show that cardioversion is generally safe as a treatment for A-Fib.
References: Aatish Garg, Monica Khunger, Sinziana Seicean, Mina K. Chung, Patrick J.Tchou Incidence of Thromboembolic Complications Within 30 Days of Electrical Cardioversion Performed Within 48 Hours of Atrial Fibrillation Onset. JACC: Clinical Electrophysiology Aug 2016, 2 (4) 487-494; DOI: 10.1016/j.jacep.2016.01.018
Author: Michael Hunt, M.D.
- Oats have been shown to lower LDL.
- Oat bran is the most effective way to consume oats to lower LDL.
- A Swedish study of 69,000 people who ate at least 3 servings of potatoes a week showed no increased risk of a MI or stroke associated with potato consumption.
References: Larsson SC, Wolk A. Potato consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: 2 prospective cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016
Author: Michael Hunt, M.D.
- Research has shown that the higher temperatures post-cardiac arrests may lead to poorer outcomes.
- Initially, 33 deg C was the target temp. However, more research is being done to find therapeutic temperature levels.
- New studies have shown that the cooling protocol differs for inpatient cardiac arrests vs. outpatient cardiac arrests. The results show that it may not be necessary to cool inpatient cardiac arrests.
Author: Aaron Lessen M.D.
- Thoracotomy is a potentially life-saving procedure. However, outcomes are often poor and the procedure itself poses many risks to provider and patient.
- Chance of surviving a thoracotomy when there is no cardiac activity on ultrasound is 0%.
- Performing a thoracotomy is unlikely to benefit patients with no cardiac activity on ultrasound or patients that lost vital signs greater than 10 minutes before starting the procedure.
- A thoracotomy is maximally beneficial in patients with a penetrating chest injury that occurred less than 10 minutes before the procedure.
References: K. Inaba et al, “FAST Ultrasound Examination as a Predictor of Outcomes After Resuscitative Thoracotomy: A Prospective Evaluation” Ann. of Surgery, 2015. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26258320