Podcast # 354: Hematometra

Author: Sam Killian, MD

Educational Pearls:

 

  • Hematometra: uterus filled with blood due to obstruction of outflow tract.
  • Most commonly a result congenital abnormalities (imperforate hymen, transverse vaginal septum, etc.) but can be acquired due to cervical stenosis, intrauterine adhesions, neoplasms, and post-surgical scarring.
  • Symptoms include: pain, abnormal bleeding, enlarged uterus
  • Diagnosis: commonly achieved by ultrasound and physical exam.
  • Treatment is surgical (cervical dilatation, hysteroscopy, etc.).

 

References

U Nayak A, Swarup A, G S J, N S. Hematometra and acute abdomen. Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock. 2010;3(2):191-192. doi:10.4103/0974-2700.62117.

Kotter HC, Weingrow D, Canders CP. Hematometrocolpos in a Pubescent Girl with Abdominal Pain. Clinical Practice and Cases in Emergency Medicine. 2017;1(3):218-220. doi:10.5811/cpcem.2017.3.33369.

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Podcast # 353: Xofluza

Author: Sam Killian, MD

Educational Pearls:

 

  • Japan recently approved baloxavir marboxil (Xofluza), which may potentially “kill” Flu A/B within 24 hours
  • Recent RCT trial showed superiority over oseltamavir (Tamiflu) in cessation of viral shedding (24 vs 72 hours)
  • Compared to placebo, superior in time to symptom resolution (53.7 vs 80.7  hours)
  • Administered as single dose
  • Yet to be considered for FDA approval

 

References

Portsmouth S, Kawaguchi K, Arai M, Tsuchiya K, Uehara T. Cap-dependent Endonuclease Inhibitor S-033188 for the Treatment of Influenza: Results from a Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo- and Active-Controlled Study in Otherwise Healthy Adolescents and Adults with Seasonal Influenza. Open Forum Infectious Diseases. 2017;4(Suppl 1):S734. doi:10.1093/ofid/ofx180.001.

 

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Podcast #352: TXA for Epistaxis

Podcast #352: TXA for Epistaxis

Author:  Chris Holmes, M.D.

Educational Pearls:

 

  • TXA: tranexamic acid; used in control of bleeding in major trauma, postpartum hemorrhage, etc.
  • In study of 216 patients with epistaxis, TXA placed on a pledget was compared to anterior cotton nasal packing.
  • The TXA group had faster time to bleeding control, quicker time to discharge, better patient satisfaction, and lower rates of re-bleeding.

 

References:

Zahed R, Moharamzadeh P, Alizadeharasi S, Ghasemi A, Saeedi M. A new and rapid method for epistaxis treatment using injectable form of tranexamic acid topically: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Emerg Med. 2013 Sep;31(9):1389-92. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2013.06.043.

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Podcast #351: Indications for AICD

Author:  Pete Bakes, MD

Educational Pearls:

  • AICD: Automated Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator.
  • Can be placed for secondary prevention of cardiac arrest (i.e. history of cardiac arrest not from reversible cause).
  • Also indications for primary prevention: EF 35% or less; ventricular tachycardia with underlying structural heart disease; Brugada; genetic-induced prolonged QT-syndromes.

References:

Al-Khatib SM et. al. 2017 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. Heart Rhythm. 2017 Oct 30. pii: S1547-5271(17)31249-3. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2017.10.035.

Podcast # 350: Pressors and Ischemia

Author: Nick Hatch, MD.

Educational Pearls:

  • A common concern using vasopressors is the risk of digital and mesenteric ischemia.
  • The absolute risk of digital ischemia and/or mesenteric ischemia is pretty low. Norepinephrine at its highest doses carries a 5% digital ischemia rate and a 2% mesenteric ischemia rate.
  • The studies demonstrating this complication were predominately patients with pre-existing liver disease.
  • Providers commonly mistake purpura fulminans, a common complication of sepsis, for digital ischemia.

 

References

Brown, SM. et al.  Survival After Shock Requiring High-Dose Vasopressor Therapy. Chest. 2013. 143(3), 664?671. http://doi.org/10.1378/chest.12-1106.

Malay MB et al. Heterogeneity of the vasoconstrictor effect of vasopressin in septic shock. Critical Care Medicine. 2004. 32(6), 1327-31.

Podcast # 349: Fat Emboli

Author: Sue Chilton, MD

Educational Pearls:

  • Triad of fat emboli syndrome is a petechial rash, AMS, and respiratory distress.
  • Petechiae usually start in the axilla.
  • 90% of patients with long bone fractures will shed fat.
  • May see ground-glass opacities on imaging, but perfusion defects will not be seen on CTA or V/Q scan
  • Patients with a PFO can have cerebral involvement.

 

References

Newbigin K, Souza CA, Torres C, Marchiori E, Gupta A, Inacio J, Armstrong M, Peña E. Fat embolism syndrome: State-of-the-art review focused on pulmonary imaging findings. Respir Med. 2016.113:93-100. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2016.01.018.

Kosova E, Bergmark B, Piazza G. Fat embolism syndrome. Circulation. 2015. 20;131(3):317-20. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.010835.

Podcast # 348: Steakhouse Syndrome

Author: Don Stader, MD

Educational Pearls:

  • Steakhouse syndrome is an impacted esophageal food bolus.
  • Occurs because they have an esophageal stricture (schatzki ring, scarring, esophagitis).
  • Classic treatments have consisted of effervescents, glucagon, and/or sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG).
  • Recent case series has shown oral 400mcg tablet of NTG dissolved in 10cc tap water was 100% successful.
  • Complications of NTG are hypotension and headache.

 

References

Kirchner GI, Zuber-Jerger I, Endlicher E, et al. (2011) Causes of bolus impaction in the esophagus. Surgical Endoscopy. 25:3170.

Willenbring BA, et al. (2018). Oral Nitroglycerin Solution May Be Effective for Esophageal Food Impaction. Journal of Emergency Medicine. 54(5):678-680.

Podcast # 347: Fasting and Procedural Sedation

 

Author: Sam Killian, MD

Educational Pearls:

  • Recent study examining fasting and adverse events during procedural sedation found no association between fasting duration and any type of adverse event.
  • Of the 6,183 children in the study, about 6 vomited during the procedure, and about 300 vomited recently after the procedure, and there were no episodes of aspiration.

References

Bhatt, M, et al.  (2018). Association of Preprocedural Fasting With Outcomes of Emergency Department Sedation in Children. JAMA Pediatrics, doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.0830. [Epub ahead of print]

Podcast # 346: Pediatric DKA

Author: Chris Holmes, MD

Educational Pearls:

  • There is a risk of cerebral edema in pediatrics with DKA if over resuscitated.
  • Recent study comparing normal saline vs. ½ normal saline showed no difference in rates of cerebral edema regardless of rate of infusion.
  • Recommend sticking with a fluid resuscitation protocol you are familiar with (i.e., 2 rounds of 10cc/kg bolus of NS).

 

References

Glaser, N. S., Ghetti, S., Casper, T. C., Dean, J. M., & Kuppermann, N. (2013). Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis, Fluid Therapy and Cerebral Injury: The Design of a Factorial Randomized Controlled Trial. Pediatric Diabetes, 14(6), 435?446. http://doi.org/10.1111/pedi.12027

Podcast # 345: Epidural Abscess

Author: Sue Chilton, MD

Educational Pearls:

  • IV drug use and spinal procedures are major risk factors.
  • Classic triad of back pain, focal neurological deficit and fever. However, presence of fever is highly variable. Neurologic deficits may not present until later, but then they can have a rapid progression of neurological decline.
  • MRSA is most common organism, but GNR and MSSA are also possible.

 

References

Chen WC, Wang JL, Wang JT, et al. (2008). Spinal epidural abscess due to Staphylococcus aureus: clinical manifestations and outcomes. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection. 41:215.

Danner RL, Hartman BJ. (1987).Update on spinal epidural abscess: 35 cases and review of the literature. Review of Infectious Disease. 9:265.

Pfister H-W, Klein M, Tunkel AR, Scheld WM. Epidural abscess. In: Infections of the Central Nervous System, Fourth Edition, Scheld WM, Whitley RJ, Marra CM (Eds), Wolters Kluwer Health, Philadelphia 2014. p.550.